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The slicing and sharpening of tough diamonds is a specialised skill that is concentrated in a limited variety of locations worldwide. Traditional diamond cutting centers are Antwerp, Amsterdam, Johannesburg, New York City, and Tel Aviv. Recently, diamond cutting facilities have been established in China, India, Thailand, Namibia and Botswana.

Solid carbon comes in completely different forms often known as allotropes relying on the kind of chemical bond. The two commonest allotropes of pure carbon are diamond and graphite. In graphite the bonds are sp2 orbital hybrids and the atoms form in planes with every bound to 3 nearest neighbors one hundred twenty degrees apart. In diamond they’re sp3 and the atoms kind tetrahedra with each sure to 4 nearest neighbors. Tetrahedra are rigid, the bonds are sturdy, and of all recognized substances diamond has the best variety of atoms per unit volume, which is why it is each the toughest …